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Know about related medical conditions

What is Back Pain?

A lot of people suffer from pains in back that arise out of triggers or situations or even without any triggers.

Stats:

A study done in 2009 revealed that 8 out of 10 people have had back pain at some point in their lives, acute or chronic. More than 1% of people who are completely bed-ridden due to back pain.

Symptoms:

  • Lower back pain
  • Neck pain
  • Upper back pain
  • Stiff shoulder
  • Pain radiating to either arms or legs
  • Pins and needle sensations
  • Severe pain over the toes or heel area

Treatment:

Doctors usually give medicines for treating the pain and symptomatic relief. If the cause is a trauma or if it is a chronic pain, more evaluation might be needed to check the probable cause of injury. Bone pains or disc pains arising from the vertebrae might even need surgery unlike muscle pains.

Prognosis:

Improvement is usually seen after course of medicine is completed, or in rare cases might require neuro-surgery for releasing pressure on the spine and correcting the problem. Few cases do not heal and might require Physiotherapy for helping with the pain.

What is Diabetes Mellitus?

Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body's important source of fuel.

Stats:

India is the Diabetes capital of the world, holding more cases of Diabetes than any other country.

Symptoms:

  • Increased thirst (polydipsia)
  • Frequent urination (polyuria)
  • Hunger (polyphagia)
  • Fatigue or generalized body malaise
  • Blurred vision
  • Slow healing sores
  • Areas of dark skin

Treatment:

More common in adults, type 2 diabetes increasingly affects children as childhood obesity increases. There's no cure for type 2 diabetes, but you may be able to manage the condition by eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight. If diet and exercise aren't enough to manage your blood sugar well, you also may need diabetes medications or insulin therapy.

Prognosis:

Diabetic patients are advised to monitor their glucose levels atleast thrice a day after and before meals. Depending on their blood glucose levels, doctors titrate the medicines and may require a good follow up. It is however a chronic illness and not cured but only controlled.

What is Gastritis ?

When your body has an inflammation, irritation, or erosion of the lining of the stomach.

Stats:

More than 10 million cases per year occur in a year in India itself.

Symptoms:

  • Belching or bloating
  • Bleeding
  • Hiccups
  • Indigestion
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Flatulence
  • Abdominal tenderness
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Loss of appetite
  • Tenderness
  • Burning in the chest
  • Abdomen or upper abdomen pain
  • Feeling of fullness

Treatment:

Medicines called proton pump inhibitors work by blocking cells that create stomach acid or that reduce the amount of acid your stomach produces. And Your doctor may recommend that you use antacids for rapid relief of gastritis pain. These medicines can neutralize the acid in your stomach. Speak to your doctor about diet and lifestyle changes to avoid getting another episode in the future. Often there are triggers in our food like chocolate, caffeine, oily and spicy food that can increase the problems.

Prognosis:

Most patients progress well and go on to heal their Gastritis after a few months of medications. But very few cannot be healed completely and might require Endoscopy to detect more serious problems and undergo other procedures to get well. However, this is a treatable condition unless chronic.

What is Headaches?

A lot of people suffer from pains over head and neck that arise out of triggers or situations or even without any triggers.

Stats:

Every person has had a headache atleast once in their lifetime.

Symptoms:

  • Pain over head
  • Blurring of vision
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Photo-sensitivity

Treatment:

Most cases are benign and do not require treatment. Others maybe a sign of migraine, tension or cluster headache, others or sinusitis, and may require further testing and follow up. Medications differ from diagnosis and may even need a lifelong maintenance therapy to avoid relapse.

Prognosis:

Most cases are benign and do not require treatment. Others maybe a sign of migraine, tension or cluster headache, others or sinusitis, and may require further testing and follow up. Medications differ from diagnosis and may even need a lifelong maintenance therapy to avoid relapse.

What is Hypertension?

Patients suffering from high Blood Pressure because the force of the blood against the artery walls is too high.

Stats:

More than 10 million cases per year are seen in India itself newly diagnosed every year.

Symptoms:

  • Blood pressure above 140/90
  • Severe if the pressure is above 180/120
  • Often no symptoms may appear
  • Headache
  • Giddiness or dizziness
  • Blurring of vision

Treatment:

Medicines for treating hypertension are many. Depending on your needs and doctor’s advice, you will be counselled on the best that suits you. If you feel a particular medicine does not suit you, or if the side effects are too much or not bearable, then speak to your doctor about getting a new anti-hypertensive drug for yourself.

Prognosis:

Hypertension can lead to a poor prognosis even if you do not have symptoms. When high blood pressure is treated adequately, the prognosis is much better. Both lifestyle changes and medicines can control your blood pressure.

What is Hyperthyroid?

Overproduction of the Thyroid hormones and less regulatory hormone causing thyroid hormonal imbalance.

Stats:

More than 1 million cases of Hyperthyroidism have been found in India.

Symptoms:

  • Weight loss
  • Diarrhea
  • Excess sweating
  • Excessive hunger
  • Unexpected weight loss
  • Rapid or irregular heartbeat
  • Insomnia
  • Hair loss
  • Irregular menstruation or short and light menstruation
  • Hyperactivity or irritability

Treatment:

Treatment options are medications to limit the production of the hormone and to control the regulation. Medications may limit the effects of thyroid, but are only effective upto a level, beyond which surgical removal maybe mandatory.

Prognosis:

Hyperthyroidism is generally treatable with no long-term adverse effects and only rarely is life threatening. Most doctors will require chronic follow up to keep a check.

What is Hypothyroid?

Patients have problems when TSH levels go higher than expected indicating a hormonal imbalance called Hypothyroidism when the thyroid gland doesn't produce enough thyroid hormone.

Stats:

More than 20 million people in India are diagnosed with Thyroid problems every year in India.

Symptoms:

  • Fatigue
  • Weight gain
  • Mood swings
  • Lethargy
  • Drowsiness
  • Constipation
  • No menstruation
  • Hair loss
  • Depression
  • Slow heart rate

Treatment:

Treatment consists of thyroid hormone replacement mainly in the form of Tyrosine supplements. Patient’s doses are titrated depending on their body’s response and few blood tests are done, to monitor levels. Also some doctors will ask you to get other tests to see the cause of the problem and cure it better.

Prognosis:

Diagnosis of the problem causing the thyroid imbalance is often the key to patients getting well. However, if most are diagnosed once with a Thyroid condition, it is a lifetime illness and requires long term treatment and doctor follow up or a chronic process.

What is Influenza?

Seasonal flu comes twice a year as seasons change and the virus multiplies.

Stats:

More than 10 million cases suffer from flu every year in India.

Symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Hoarse voice
  • Nasal congestion
  • Coughing
  • Sneezing
  • Runny nose
  • Sore throat
  • Rashes over body

Treatment:

Paracetamol or NSAIDs, taken in the right dosage. This is a symptomatic treatment for fever and also helps in all the body pains. A Dengue patient usually tends to have thrombocytopenia(fall in platelets), hence needs monitoring closely for this, and sometimes a blood transfusion at later stages as platelets drop if it is not influenza.

Prognosis:

Most cases heal with correct medicine regimen and proper monitoring. Very very few cases can be fatal or might require hospitalization. Others may require testing and follow up. However, usually it is a benign illness which does not last too long.

What is UTI?

An infection in any part of the urinary system, the kidneys, bladder or urethra is called Urinary Tract Infection.

Stats:

More than 10 million women in India suffer from UTI every year.

Symptoms:

  • Burning micturition
  • Fever
  • Abdominal pain
  • Dark or foul-smelling urine
  • Abdominal pain
  • Back Pain
  • Nausea & vomiting
  • Fatigue or body malaise
  • Persistent urge to urinate
  • Sense of incomplete bladder emptying
  • Blood in urine

Treatment:

Treatment depends on the type of UTI you are suffering such as what level it is. UTI can be in the Urethra, Urinary bladder or kidneys. Depending on the severity it is necessary to take the medications. In some cases injections and hospitalization might be required.

Prognosis:

Fever makes UTI complicated and severe. Usually treatable, in rare cases it may require IV antibiotics. This condition is more common in women than men and specially during pregnancy when their immune systems are down. However, speak to your doctor for reassurance and how you can prevent it in the future.

What is Weight loss?

Losing weight require more than just determination and depending on your current BMI, it will require guidance.

Stats:

India has the third-highest number of obese and overweight people, 41 million, (11 % of adolescents, and 20 % of all adults) after US and China, with 5% in the Morbid obesity category. This means 1 of every 5 people you meet in India will be obese and require weight loss.

Symptoms:

  • Weight gain, tough to lose(obesity)
  • Increased appetite
  • Inability to exercise
  • Associated symptoms

Treatment:

A lot of treatment regimen are created tailored to the patient’s weight status. You will require follow up and regular therapy, consultation or counselling to get rid of the kilos in a healthy & systematic manner under a doctor’s supervision.

Prognosis:

Many conditions will require testing and diagnosis to get a better opinion. A good improvment is seen if the diet and exercises advised by doctor are followed strictly and religiously.

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